The agreement followed the Joint Action Plan (JPA), an interim agreement between the P5-1 powers and Iran, reached in Geneva on 24 November 2013. The Geneva agreement was an interim agreement in which Iran agreed to reduce part of its nuclear program in exchange for the exemption of certain sanctions. This came into effect on January 20, 2014.  The parties agreed to extend their talks with an initial extension on 24 November 2014 and a second extension period set for 1 July 2015.  On July 18, Obama dedicated his weekly radio address to the agreement by saying, “This agreement will make America and the world safer and safer,” refuting “many overheated and often dishonest arguments about it”;  Obama said, “As commander-in-chief, I make no apologies for keeping this country safe and secure through hard diplomatic work on the mild warstorm.”  On July 23, in the White House cabinet room, Obama met with a dozen undecided Democrats in the House of Representatives to discuss the deal and seek their support.  Mick Mulroy, former Assistant Secretary of Defense for the Middle East, said the U.S. Department of Defense was opposed to the withdrawal of the JCPOA, because even if it`s not perfect, it`s the best thing to look forward to. He also said that the United States should have maintained the agreement on nuclear activities and submitted another agreement on malicious activities.  First, it is calling the bluff of Tehran, which threatened to withdraw completely from the agreement if it was withdrawn for non-compliance. But if Iran degenerates or refuses to work constructively on the resolution process, what will the Europeans do next? Do you impose sanctions and kill the agreement because they have no choice? Second, the completion of the mechanism, whether for lack of Iranian cooperation or simply for reasons of time, will almost automatically lead to a relapse, which means that all UN sanctions will be reintroduced before 2015. This would mean the immediate end of the agreement and the Europeans would find themselves directly on the side of Washington – where they will hear a resounding “Told you so” to start. After a wave of confrontations between Iran and the United States earlier this year, Iran also announced that it would stop complying with the 2015 nuclear deal.
The nuclear deal has generated mixed reactions at the international level. Many countries have expressed hope that it could achieve iran`s denuclearization, while some countries neighbouring Iran, including Israel and some U.S. lawmakers, have expressed distrust of the agreement and have considered it to be seriously flawed.   The open letter signed by more than 100 former U.S. ambassadors and senior U.S. State Department officials who support the agreement begins with the words: “The Joint Comprehensive Action Plan (JCPOA) with Iran is a pioneering agreement to discourage the proliferation of nuclear weapons.”   On the other hand, Michael Mandelbaum, Christian A. Herter Professor at Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies, wrote that the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Middle East ultimately depended “not on the details of the Vienna agreement, but on the policy of deterrence known during the Cold War.” Mandelbaum added that if Obama leaves office without Iran making the bomb, “the responsibility for an effective deterrence policy will fall on his successor.”  Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz said, “Nothing on the table will deter Iran.